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Aufsätze Some Lexical Gleanings from Anglo-French

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Aufsätze
Some Lexical Gleanings from Anglo-French Gascony1
From the time of Caesar onwards, the linguistic specificity of Gascony has been recognized2. What this article will be concerned with
is not the well-known individualism of the Gascon variety of Occitan,
but a particular aspect of the history of French in Gascony during
the Middle Ages, namely the incursion of Anglo-French äs a direct
consequence of the colonization of the region and its occupation by
England during nearly three hundred years (1154-1453). Inevitably,
this colonization brought with it not only soldiers and administrators,
but also the whole apparatus of medieval bureaucracy; and because
Gascony was a colony of Anglo-Norman England, that bureaucracy
functioned, logically enough, in the languages of record of the mother
country, Latin and, above all, Anglo-French. Significant quantities of
Anglo-French material from, sent to, and circulating within Gascony,
are in print and have been for decades. The main published sources
include the Archives Historiques du Departement de la Gironde (58
volumes, AHG), the Gascon Rolls (four published volumes, GR), the
War of Saint-Sardos (Chaplais 1954), Cuttino's Gascon Register A
(Gasc.Reg.A), John of Gaunt's Register (Armitage-Smith 1911 and
Lodge/Somerville 1937), and collections of Anglo-Norman or AngloFrench letters such äs those by Legge (LettrOxfL) and Tanquerey
(LettrTanq). Isolated documents are scattered around innumerable
works of modern historical scholarship inboth book and Journal form,
and a substantial number are printed in Chaplais's English Medieval
Diplomatie Practice (Engl.Dip.Pract.}^. In addition, a vast number of
documents lie unpublished in the Public Records Office (PRO), in the
Archives Nationales (Tresor des Chärtes) in Paris (AN), the Archives
Departementales des Pyrenees-Atlantiques in Pau (ADPA) and (to a
lesser extent) in the Archives Departementales de la Gironde in Bordeaux (ADG). No doubt material is to be found in other archives
(Auch, Tarbes, Poitiers) in south-western France äs well.
1
I should like to thank Dr Lynn Williams of the University of Exeter (Department of Spanish) and Professor William Rothwell (formerly of the University of
Manchester) for their characteristically helpful comments on an earlier version
of this study.
2
The most important studies of Gascony remain (for our purposes) Baidinger
(1956, 1958a, 1958b, 1962), Heger (1964), and Rohlfs (1970).
3
Abbrevations for all texts, document collections and archives are given in
the Bibliography following this study.
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Yet, for linguistic purposes, the documentary evidence of three hundred years of Anglo-French occupation of Gascony has been largely
ignored. None of the older, and still Standard, manuals of Anglo-Norman so much äs mentions the Gascon material, let alone attempts to
determine which (if any) of the types of document may be considered
to belong to the Anglo-Norman canon, however that is to be defined.
For Menger, Pope, and Vising, English Gascony might never have existed, and documents written there could just äs well have been composed in Sanskrit4. Conversely, in the writings of Continental French
specialists and Gascon scholars tackling questions of language use in
Gascony during the English occupation and therafter, the AngloFrench influence imported by the English occupation is not really
distinguished, linguistically, from the impact of the French of France
itself. French is French, and Gascon is Gascon, without any distinction being made between the language of documents compiled by
servants of the English or French kings. Perhaps (like the occasional
attempts by French scholars to deny the Anglo-Norman origin of certain texts) this is simply wishful thinking, a sort of scholarly repossession of the temporarily English territory of Gascony. The only exceptions to date to this generally Anglocentric perspective on Anglo-Norman are a short article by Dominica Legge on Chaplais's War of St
Sardos, a suggestive but not entirely convincing note by Peter Noble,
and some comments about lexical borrowing made en passant by
Kurt Baidinger in an essay predominantly concerned with Anglicisms
(Legge 1974; Noble 1977; Baidinger I960)5.
As a result, perhaps, of this general neglect, medieval French and
Occitan lexicography have both failed to give much attention to the
Anglo-French material from Gascony. Anglo-French documents in,
and to and from, Gascony have fallen between several lexicographical
stools. It is äs though Anglo-French in Gascony has been tacitly
classed äs part of Anglo-French, or simply äs part of the great terra
incognita which is administrative (and, indeed, non-literary) Middle
French. From both sides of the Channel, its specificity has thereby
been overlooked. Significantly, not one of the major published
sources has been edited by a linguist: all are the work of historians,
diplomatists or palaeographers. As a result, the eminently desirable
(and often indispensable) linguistic introductions, notes and glossaries are lacking; and without them, the raw documents themselves,
4
There is no mention at all of Gascony in Menger (1904), Pope (1934), or
Vising (1923). Some of the anomalies which the apparently straightforward geographical definition throws up are discussed briefly but pertinently in Rothwell
(1985,
44-45); also by Trotter (1994, 478-479).
5
A general introduction is to be found in Trotter (1997).
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Some Lexical Gleanings from Anglo-French Gascony
55
however well-edited, often present numerous problems even at the
level of literal Interpretation. Here äs in other areas of medieval linguistic and historical study, interdisciplinary collaboration has been
shamefully conspicuous by its absence. Yet, to linguists and historians
alike, documents of this type are of undoubted interest and importance. The historian's interest lies, above all, in the content of the
texts, but this is entirely dependent on the existence of reliable editions. For the linguist, the fact that several major dictionaries are at
present undergoing thorough revision (AND, FEW) or are in the process of being published from scratch (DAG, DAO, DEAF, DMLBS,
DMF), means that the time is ripe for making available to the scholarly world these documents which have languished for far too long
in the archives.
Even the DAG, by far the most comprehensive and the most polyglot dictionary yet undertaken of the Gascon Sprachlandschaft, has
been unable to take account of unpublished material, so that not only
is a large percentage of what survives excluded from its purview, but,
more importantly, whole collections, such äs those (still largely untouched, except for the famous Gascon Rolls) of the Public Records
Office, will not feature in its cornucopian columns6. The nature of the
unpublished material (concerned largely with often tedious administrative, legal and financial affairs), and the extent to which the DAG
already draws on comparable documents in considerable quantities,
mean that it is unlikely that there will be much in the unpublished
archival material which the Heidelberg dictionary will not already
have picked up elsewhere. As far äs the dictionaries of (Continental)
medieval French are concerned, Godefroy is naturally rather more
accommodating than the avowedly 'literary Tobler-Lommatzsch, which
is predictably reluctant to incorporate the disturbingly anomalous
products of Anglo-French Gascony. An important and beneficial consequence of Godefroy's decision is that some at least of the material
has foünd its way indirectly into the FEW.
It is, however, on the Anglo-French side of the Channel that the
Gascon material in Anglo-French is potentially the most significant if, that is, it is to be admitted to the rather ill-defined (or, usually,
entirely widefined) canon of Anglo-Norman/Anglo-French texts. The
Anglo-Norman Dictionary (AND) has included some, but not all, of
the published Anglo-French material, notably The War of SaintSardos, John ofGaunt's Register, Legge's and Tanquerey's collections
of letters (which contain between them a total of six letters of Gascon
origin), Rymer's Foedera (FoederaC) and smaller samples such äs
Chaplais's edition of private letters of Edward I in the English HistorSee preface to DAG, in vol. I, and Rothwell (1980).
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ical Review for 1962 (Chaplais 1962). But here, too, there are gaps the Gascon Rolls (insofar äs they are not in Rymer), the important
Archives Historiques du Departement de la Gironde, Chaplais's English Medieval Diplomatie Practice, Cuttino's Gascon Register all,
alas, escaped the net. It is notable that much of what hos been included turns up only from the middle of the Anglo-Norman Dictionary onwards, in the wake of the Editor's commendable decision to
incorporate the voluminous Collas fichier half-way through publication of the Dictionary, thereby transforming its coverage and importance. Again, inevitably, the unpublished material does not feature in
this dictionary either. Even by a narrow definition of what constitutes
Anglo-French, there is a good deal to be added to the already prodigiously long list of texts currently occupying just over eleven closelypacked pages of the preface to the Anglo-Norman Dictionary7.
The Anglo-French material which we are concerned with falls into
three main categories: documents sent from England to Gascony; documents sent back from Gascony to England; and documents which
circulated within Gascony itself, albeit emanating directly or indirectly from the English administrative Offices of the duchy or (from
July 1363) principality of Guyenne/Aquitaine8.
Restricting enquiries to matters of lexis alone, it is evident that
these documents do indeed repay further attention. The limited
amount of unpublished material which I have so far properly examined (some thirty documents in French archives, in Bordeaux, Paris
and Pau, and a similar number in the PRO in London) is rieh in new
material for the AND, not all of which is to be found in the other
dictionaries of medieval French. Moving into the published material,
the additions to the AND, and to the other Standard dictionaries,
multiply rapidly. Below are some examples of words or senses not
recorded in AND, together with indications of their treatment in the
other dictionaries (FEW, TL, Gdf, DAG). The list has no pretentions
to being exhaustive: it is not meant to do more than underline the
need for further, more thorough investigation of this whole area. The
entries have been classified into three groups: (1) authentic AngloFrench items, found in documents which emanate from Britain; (2)
words found in documents seemingly from Englishmen in Gascony;
and (3) words from texts whose origin is more accurately regarded
7
The complete list is appended to fasc. 7 et ult. (1992), xv-xxvi, with an
indication of the point in the production of the AND at which given texts were
brought into the fold. For some general problems, see Rothwell (1975, 1984) and
Mohren (1991).
8
The Black Prince called himself 'Prince d'Aquitaine' fet de Gualles', of
course) from July 1363 onwards. Edward III styled himself 'Seigneur or 'Duc' of
Aquitaine (see Barber 1978, 221).
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äs Gascon, or perhaps Anglo-Gascon. Obvious Gasconisms are identified in all three groups by the addition of '(G.)' after the headword9.
1. Anglo-French Documents sent from B ritain to Gascony
acordement, accordeement adv. in, by agreement: taxeront, jugeront et declareront accordeement ensemble, par leurs lettres, sur
les emendes desdites entreprises (Edward I, Chatham, 12 June
1302; GR III 407 a); not in AND; FEW 24.84 a (12.-14. jh.').
apurtenance, espurtenance s. (law) appurtenance: nostre viscuntee de Crotoy, öd les espurtenaunces (Edward I, Aberconwy, 9 May
1283; GR III 568b); form espurtenance not in AND, TL.
augmentacion s. expansion, development: bien acertenez de voz prudencez et loiaultez au bien, conservation et augmentation de noz
seignouries (Henry VI to council in Bordeaux, Westminster, 15 August 1437; AHG, 16, 239); exact sense not in AND; cf. il vous doint
bone vie et longue en augmentacioun de bon et honour ainsi
comme vostre euer desire LettrOxfL 22.23 (not in AND).
barrique (G.) s. barrique, barrel: Au VIP article, faisant mention des
barriques de vin ... (Henry VI to the council of Gascony, Westminster, 21 March 1433 (?); AHG, 16, 310); not in AND, TL, FEW; Gdf
4.214b; DMLBS barrica (1445).
censable a. liable to cess (rent): pur achater heritage en Pontieu, en
terres gaynables, em bös, ou en choses censables sens fef entier
(Edward I, Westminster, 5 June 1285; GR III 575b); not in AND; Gdf
2.146; earlier than any FEW 2.581 b attestations; DMLBS censualis
1140; (Gase.) GR II 355 from 1289.
colurer, colerer v.refl. to behave deceitfully: pur ceo qe les ditz
Fraunceis se colerent et feignent encheson de prendre nostre
duchee (Edward II to subjects in Gascony, Porchester, 30 September 1324; Engl.Dipl.Pract. I.ii 430 [and FoederaC Il.i 570]); not in
AND; TL 2.574 äs virefL; FEW 2.922b not with this sense.
cominication s. communication, intercourse: la cominication et repaire des vassalx et subgittz quelx qu'ilz soient... en noz paiez,
villez et seignouriez, ainsi... (Henry VI to council in Bordeaux,
Westminster, 15 August 1437; AHG, 16, 238); not in AND, but cf.
Suidas 615: contact, intercourse: si vus volez purger la pensee gardez tuz vos sens de femme e ne aez oveques eles nule communica9
The headword (where appropriate) is that given in AND; äs in the AND,
round brackets indicate doubt about the authenticity of a form, square brackets
are used to provide a more satisfactory headword where the only attestation is
in a more than usually eccentric form. The abbreviations used (for texts) are
those of DEAF where available, of AND (= DEAF Stone) where texts are not
recorded in DEAF.
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cion; FEW 2.960b (seit 1370'); DMLBS communicatio converse,
intercourse' (1461).
(commissarer) s. commissary: ne estoyt pas sä entensioun de vous
prier que vous, sire, les treossez en plee [pur] les ditz supprises
devaunt nuls commissarers (l. commissaiers?) (credence of Thomas Cobham, envoy to France, 1311; Gasc.Reg.A 362); not in AND,
but cf. forms sub commisarie; form not in Gdf 1.195b or 9.134 a,
TL 2.610.
communiquer, -iquier v. a. to notify, communicate: a este parle et
communique entre nostre lieutenant et Conseil... d'une partie, et
lez maire et jurez de la cite de Bourdeaux... (John de Radclyf,
seneschal of Gascony, authorizing levy of taxes, Bordeaux, 28 November 1430; AHG, 16, 194); v. n. to communicate, discuss matters
with: vous envoions... plein pover et auctorite de assembler et
communiquier ovecque lez mesagez et deputes des dessusnomes
conte d'A. et sire de la B. (Henry VI to council in Bordeaux, Westminster, 15 August 1437; AHG, 16, 239); not in AND, TL; FEW
2.960a (1370-); DMLBS communicare (Bede).
composeur s. arbitrator, go-between: quatre persones ellutes de l'assentement des parties, tant comme arbitres ou ordenurs ou amables composeurs (Edward I, (Westminster?)), September 1290; GR
III583a); Gdf 2.211abutnot withthis sense; cf. Gdf 2.211b compositeur (1274); FEW 2.ü. 985b apr. componedor.
conciteyn s. fellow-citizen: En dreit de deners en les quieux nous
sumes tenuz a voz conciteyns ... (Edward I to mayor and jurats of
Bayonne, prob. 1299; GR III 37 a); cf. AND conciteseyn; Gdf 9.144c
conciteain.
concordablement adv. by mutual agreement: d'illeoques se pourront
transporter a autre lieu ou lieux que concordablement bon leur
semblera (letter from Edward III concerning land dispute over Belleville, Westminster, 20 January 1366; AN, J.642(92), Eng.DipLPract.
I.ii 679); cf. AND concordaument; condordalment attested ProvSalSanl 11533 (not in AND); TL 2.658 concordable; FEW 2.ii.l013a
(mfr. 14. jh.').
conservation s. protection: bien acertenez de voz prudencez et
loiaultez au bien, conservation et augmentation de noz seignouries
(Henry VI to council in Bordeaux, Westminster, 15 August 1437;
AHG, 16, 239); not in AND; Gdf 9.165b; TL 2.735; FEW 2.ii.l066b
('seit Roisin); DMLBS conservatio 'preservation, maintenance'
(12 c).
[cunoissaument], conoissaument adv. wittingly, knowingly: come
li seneschal lur demandast mil livres de turnoys... pur plusors
trespas de deseobeisances [e] entrepressours amendes conoissaument (Edward I, Worcester, 21 May 1282; GR III 561 b); not in AND;
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FEW 2.845 a 'anorm. cognoissaument 132Γ; Gdf 2.243 c lists form
but none of quotations are Anglo-French.
cusinage s.fact ofbeing cousins: eher cousyn ... avoms ausint regardez la graunt amur e le cosinage qe est entre vus e nous (letter
from Edward I to Charles of Anjou, Aberconwy, 25 March 1283; GR
II 188a); cf. AND cusinage: 'kindred' and (law) 'cosinage; TL 2.927
'Verwandtschaft (Vetternschaft)'.
despointer, depointer v. a. to dismiss, remove from Office: a este
appoincte ... que maistre N. de B. demeure oudit office ... ne n'est
pas nostre entention de depoincter aucuns noz bons officers ... se
Uz ne commettent cas pour lesquelz en doyvent estre despoinctez
(Henry VI to the council of Gascony, Westminster, 21 March 1433
(?); AHG, 16, 311); cf. AND sub despointer, 'to balk, thwart'; sense
not in TL 2.1708 C wegr cken, entfernen; jem. beeintr chtigen,
schm lern, sch digen'); cf. however FEW 9.590b.
gagiere s. pledge: si la terre ... feu ... donee ou baillee ... en tout en
en partie, par manage ou par gagiere (peace terms between kings
of France and England, 1279 (English version); GR II 87 a); not in
AND; cf. TL 4.38, DEAF 1.29.
gascoin, gascon, gascoun s. Gascon: totes nos autres bones gentz,
Engloys et Gascouns (Edward I, Bury St Edmunds, 17 November
1296; GR ΙΠ 332 b); totes ses bones gentz Engleis et Gascons (Edward I, Plympton, 11 April 1297; GR III353 b); forms not found AND
gascoin; cf. TL 4.199, DEAF 3.346.
heritate (G.) s. inheritance, heritage: de son heritate ne des choses
que tuchent de duche ne serroyt il pas tenuz de aillors respoundre
for que devant vous (credence of Thomas Cobham, envoy to
France, 1311; Gasc.Reg.A 363); FEW 4.412a: 'apr. heretaf; not in
AND, Gdf, TL.
hoguette (G.?) s.- small barrel: les vins qui hors dudit pais ont este
admenez en petiz tonneaulx, que Γόη nomme hoguettes ... (King of
England to council of Gascony, Westminster, 14..?; AHG, 16, 264);
not in AND; Gdf 4.484c quoting DC 4.212 c sub hogettus.
[inhibir], inibir v. a. to impede, prevent (?): vous, usantz de vostre
propre auctorite encontre le noustre mandement... avez inibit et
chargie une des deputees dudit connestable qu'il ne bailhasse ne
delivrace riens de nostres revenues ... (Henry VI to council in Gascony, Westminster, 4 June 1445 (?); AHG, 16, 284); not in AND;
Gdf 4.584b (Bersuire), TL 4.1392, FEW 4.692b; RMLWL inhibeo
(1190).
inviolablement adv. without fall: Nous vous mandons et commandons... que, icelles noz aultres lettres et nostredicte ordonnance
contenue en icelles, vous enterinez et acomplissiez, et faictes enterinez (sie) et accomplir inviolablement (Henry VI to the council of
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Gascony, Westminster, 18 August 1445; AHG, 16, 298); not in AND,
TL;FEW4.801a(1371-).
licencie p. p. äs s. licentiate, graduate: Bertran de Domasan, escuier,
maistre Johan de Forthon, licencie en decretz ... Johan de Forthon,
licencie en droyt canon ... (Henry VI, confirming a treaty between
Charles VI of France and Jean, count of Foix, Westminster, 1422;
AHG, 16, 27); not in AND; cf. TL 5.403 (same sense); RMLWL licentiatus (1350).
murmure s. rumour, gossip: (all officers in Gascony should be paid
exclusively by the King, rather than by local nobles:) affin que
toutes occassions de sospection ou defience en soient ostez, et les
grans murmurs qui en ont couru, apaisiez et delaissez (Henry VI to
the council of Gascony, Westminster, 21 March 1433 (?); AHG, 16,
309); sense not in AND; cf. TL 6.441 (Oerede, Kunde), FEW 6.230a
Cplainte sourde' 1355) RMLWL murmurium.
nace, naasse (G.) s. fixed net, fishery: nostre naasse de Guyssen
en nostre pais (ADPA E170; Berkhampstead, l January 1371, with
vidimus from Westminster, and further copy sent from La
RocheUe); Gdf 5.472a, 10.191 c; TL 6.508 only 'Fischreuse, Netz;
FEW 7.29 a agask. 'barrage de pecherie'; sense not in AND; RMLWL
nassa weir, fishery' (Gase.: 1280); cf. RothweU (1993a, 594).
natif, natiff a. native, local: vous avez receus et admys en chagnoignes ... plusieurs persones natifs ou paus rebelle et desoubeisant a
nous (Henry VI to dean and chapter of Saint-Andre de Bordeaux,
Westminster, 28 January 1430; AHG, 16, 189); (all officers in Gascony should be) du tout et seulement a nous, sans estre de dignites
ou Offices ..., gaiges ou pencions de quelque seigneur natif de par
dela (Henry VI to the council of Gascony, Westminster, 21 March
1433 (?); AHG, 16,309); not in AND; not TL (6.512); cf. FEW 7.45 a
('seit Froissart') RMLWL nativus (s. 1461).
oblique a. indirect, roundabout: affin que, par quelque voye oblique
ou aultrement, desobeissance ne soit faicte... ceulx que troverez
estre delayans, refusans ou desobeissans, pugnissiez et faites pugnir (Henry VI to the council of Gascony, Westminster, 18 August
1445; AHG, 16, 299); not in AND; cf. oblic s. only in grammatical
sense; TL 6.955 with this sense (cf. Gdf 5.555 a, FEW 7.270 a).
pariage, paryage s. agreement (?): qe hom veie en chancelerie eu
registre la tenour de la confirmacion qe le rois ad fait a l'abbe de
Sorde del pariage fet entre le Roi et li (reply of English council to
Arnaud Caulhau, 2 May 1317; GR IV 584b); not in AND; TL 7.267
'Teilhaberschaft bei gleichen Rechten und gleichem Besitz' (cf. Gdf
5.769b); FEW 7.600b apr. pariatge traite, accord (seit 13. jh.)'.
peli^un, plichon s. für (?): Alouez encore au dit recheveeur les costages et les despens de plichons (or L peichons, 'fish'?), de fruit, de
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formages et de tutes autres choses que nostre seneschal de Pontieu
ad envoye em Engletere (Edward I, Westminster, 3 June 1290; GR
III 583 b); not in AND; cf. TL 7.601 ρβϋςοη, with form ρΐίςοη.
prudommement adv.fittingly, in a manner befitting a worthy man:
a este appoincte ... que maistre N. de B. demeure oudit office, tant
que il l'exercera loyaument et prudommement (l. prudommement?)
(Henry VI to the council of Gascony, Westminster, 21 March 1433
(?); AHG, 16, 311); not in AND, TL; attested Gdf 6.400c.
sporle s. (law) sporle, feudal relief: Au regard du VIe article, faisant
mention de homanages et sporles, etc., qui nous appartiennent...
(Henry VI to the council of Gascony, Westminster, 21 March 1433
(?); AHG, 16, 310); not in AND, TL; cf. Gdf esporle (3.546 c), where
all quotations are from Gascony; RMLWL sporla (1255).
subrogier v.a.; p.p. s s. & a.: replaced person: celui qui subrogie
sera par nous (Westminster, 20 January 1366; AN, J.642(92);
Engl.Dipl.Pract. I.ii 680); not in AND; cf. Gdf 10.719c, TL 9.1051,
FEW 12.350 b.
subside s. (clerical) subsidy: une subside grante au pape par le clergie de nostre realme (vidimus of a receipt, from Edward III, for
monies received from the King of France, London, l May 1362;
transcript dated Paris, 10 September 1362; AN, J.641(103)); clerical
sense not recorded AND or FEW 12.353b; cf. Gdf 10.720a, TL
9.1051 CHilfe, Unterst tzung); RMLWL subsidium.
survenue, sorvenue s. access, onset (of illnessy. au dit nostre
frere ... sorvint une sorvenue de malaidie, pur qai son passage est
uncore destourbe (Edward I, Westminster, 10 December 1295; GR
III 322 b); exact sense not in AND; cf. TL 9.937 '( berraschendes)
Hinzukommen'; FEW 14.245a-b: Froissart, Venue inattendue'.
vinerie, vignerie s. vineyard: la vignerie de Malvesin... avec les
droiz profiz et appertenances de la dite vignerie (London, 15 August
1372, signed J. Fordham; PRO C 81/1538 no. 55); cf. AND vinerie
(only Biblical sources); FEW 14.413b emfr. vignerie vignoble bourg.
1374'.
violentement adv. violently, by violence: Bretran (5^c) de Gramont... a prins violentement et par force... nostre bien ame,
nostre conseiler et serviteur par dela... (Henry VI to the council of
Gascony, Westminster, 3 June 1445; AHG, 16, 292); not in AND but
cf. violenment; in FEW 14.487a (mir. 14. Jh.-Cotgr 1611').
2. Anglo-French Documents sent by Englishmen in Gascony
(within Gascony, or back to Britain)
appointement s. agreement: affin de trover maniera covenabla de
appaisier et passifyer ledit discort et parvenir a aucun bon appoin-
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tement raisonnable, dont les parties peussent estre contens (Henry
VI to council of Gascony and Mayor and jurats of Bordeaux, s. L,
1448 (?); AHG, 16, 364); not in AND; FEW 9.590a (1304-); TL 1.459
Cgerichtliche Bestimmung'); DMLBS appunctuamentum (1402).
approbatoire a. of approval: pour recevoir de lui aussi les letres
confirmatoires et approbatoires (Henry VI, concerning oath due
from Jean de Foix, Amiens, 18 April 1423; AHG, 16, 33); not in AND;
FEW 24.53a (lettre approbatoire, 1468); DMLBS approbatorius
(1420).
[canun], canon a. (of law) canon: a tot dreit escrit, canon e civil, e
a tot for e a tuta custuma (letter from Edward I, Bordeaux, 27 June
1289; GR II 338b); not in AND äs a.; TL 2.24; DMLBS l canon.
captal, captau (G.) s. captal (chiefjudge): Jehan de Greli, captal de
Buch (Black Prince accords right to levy taxes on wine to Jean de
Grailly, Angouleme, 10 February 1377; AHG 6, 372); nostre tres eher
et feal cousin Guaston de Foix, conte de Longueville et captal de
Puch (Henry VI, concerning oath due from Jean de Foix, Amiens,
18 April 1423; AHG, 16, 31); moseigneur Gaston de Foix, captau de
Buch (J. de Radclyf, seneschal of Gascony, assigning sum of money
to Gaston de Foix, Bordeaux, 27 March 1425; AHG, 16, 102); not in
AND, TL; FEW 2.253 b (im wesentlichen auf die Gaskogne
beschränkt'); DMLBS (Gase.) 1242 sub capitalis 7 f.
civil a. (of law) civil: a tot dreit escrit, canon e civil, e a tot for e a
tuta custuma (letter from Edward I, Bordeaux, 27 June 1289; GR II
338b); not in AND äs a..
commettre v. a. to entrust, Charge: Nous vous mandons et comettons
que nostre dite main mise es chasteaux dessusdiz et lieux et appertenensses d'iceulx vous ostez (yidimus of letter from Black Prince,
Bordeaux, 11 March 1365; ADPA E.203); exact sense not recorded
AND; but cf. TL 2.608; Gdf 2.194c and 9.133b; and FEW 2.ii.955b.
confirmatoire a. confirmatory, confirming: pour recevoir de lui
aussi les letres confirmatoires et approbatoires (Henry VI, concerning oath due from Jean de Foix, Amiens, 18 April 1423; AHG, 16,
33); not in AND; Gdf 9.152b; TL 2.681 refers to Gdf only; FEW
2.ii.l036a (1360); DMLBS confirmatorius (s. xüi).
contrester, contraster v. n. to resist: pour paier et soudoier gens
d'armes et argers pour resistir et contraster a la force et puissance
du due d'Angou (Thomas Feiton to Constable of Bordeaux, Bordeaux, 4 August 1376; PRO E 101/180/1 no. 54); form not in AND
sub contrester, not Gdf; TL 2.785 contraster refers to contrester
(2.805), but form not found in quotations; FEW 2.ii.ll22b mfr.
contraster 1543-, or form from Occitan?
eure3, courrer v. a. to harry, importune: qu'il ne face lever ne prendre les susdiz patiz par forte main ne face pour iceulx courrer ne
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grever le pays jusques a tant qu'il soit discussiez et determinez si
yceulx patiz a lui appartienent (John of Gaunt to Charles VI of
France, Bordeaux, 17 July 1395; Engl.Dipl.Pract. I.ii 591); sense not
in AND, but cf. SJeanAumU 506: v. n. to invade, attack: AI tens que
eist seint Johan fu Eurent li Persant mult curu E mult robbe en la
cuntree Ki Siria est apele[e].
emplite s. outlay, disbursement: si chose esteit que le vaunt dit
E. C.... fezeit coust ni missions pur defaute de payement ou de les
choses ou de aucune de les meymes choses nomees en ceste presente lettre, ni emperdreit emplites (ms. emplices, L empleites?) ...
(letter from Edward I, Bordeaux, 27 June 1289; GR II 338 a); cf.
AND espleit, esploite Gdf 3.538a, TL 3.1222, FEW 3.311 b; and RegleHospCamS 1032: acquisition: ne devez de vos receites Tere
achater ne empleites; FEW 4.596a.
enterinement2 s. fulfüment, completion: nous, qui desirons de tout
nostre euer enterinement et acomplissement des ordennances et
appointemens faiz et passez... (Henry VI, concerning oath due
from Jean de Foix, Amiens, 18 April 1423; AHG, 16, 33); AND has
enterinement adv. only; äs s. TL 3.589 (Vollzug, Ausfertigung').
[executerie], excequterie s. keepership (pf seat): la copia de cest
present original, soudz le seel de la excequterie de Bourdeaux
(Black Prince, Bordeaux, 22 July 1356; AHG, 16, 23); not in AND;
Gdf 3.680 a executoire; DMLBS executoria (sigilli) (Gase. 1312).
fuer1 (G.) s. custom, practice: les feurs et costumes de Bourdeaux
(ADG, G. 1716/11; vidimus of letter from the Black Prince, Angouleme, 13 January 1369; exact (law) sense not in AND, Gdf 4.173 a
or TL 3.2327-2331; FEW 3.737b 'Apr./or, abearn. bearn.... daraus
entlehnt mfr. nfr. les fors] DMLBS 2 forus e[Prov. for, Sp. fuero <
forum, but this sense unrecorded for AN, OF fuer], law, custom'
(Gase. 1252).
instituer v. a. to appoint, install: donnons en mandament... que ...
ilz le meteht et institüeht, öu faceht rrietre et instituer en pocessiört
et saisine dudit Office de seneschal (Henry VI, appointing Pons de
Castillon seneschal of Agen, Paris, 7 May 1425; AHG, 16, 151); not in
AND except with ecclesiastical sense sub instituer; TL has general
sense 4.1408, cf. Gdf 4.594c, 10.21c; FEW 4.724a.
marchander v. n. to trade, carry out business: touz le plus qe demorent en la ville (sc. Bordeaux) sont marchantz et ne pount marchander en nul part pur la guerre (Robert de Wynbourne to Hugh Despenser, s. 1. n. d.; PRO SC 1/50/49); il se transporta... ou pais de Bretaigne avec ses marchandises pour marchander et en faire son profit (Black Prince to Seneschal of Aquitaine, Bordeaux, 11 March
1370; PRO C 47/25/5 no. 12); exact sense not in AND; sense recorded Gdf 5.164 a, TL 5.1126.
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mover v. n.; m. de, to belong to: tant les choses francs et celes qui
moevent de nous, comme celes qui moevent d'autres seigneurs (letter from Black Prince, Angouleme, 15 January 1369; ADG G.374/
14); exact sense not recorded AND; cf. TL 6.385 (Im Lehnswesen:
herkommen, stammen von').
naffre s. wound: Et n'ayt ascuns biens de quoy puisse payer lez meres
(= mires, 'doctors') pour li guarir de cez naffres ne de quoy puisse
sustanter sä vie (William Lescrope, Bordeaux, 19 November 1384;
PRO E 101/183/3 no. 7); not in AND; Gdf 5.480 c; TL 6.541 'Verwundung, Wunde; FEW 16.594anafre.
paduent (G.) s. pasture: vignes, molins, bois, pres, pasteux, paduentz, peschiers (ADG G. 1716/11; vidimus of letter from the
Black Prince, Angouleme, 13 January 1369); not recorded AND;
cf. RMLWL sub padoentum (1289); FEW 8.51 a (sub *PATU-):
'seit 117 ; 'Diese Wortfamilie ist auf die Gaskogne beschränkt'; not
TL.
patiz (G.) s. tribute, levy: vous plese comander celui mesme A. qu'il
ne face lever ne prendre les susdiz patiz par forte main ne face
pour iceulx courrer ne grever le pays jusques a tant qu'il soit discussiez et determinez si yceulx patiz a lui appartienent (John of Gaunt
to Charles VI of France, Bordeaux, 17 July 1395; Engl.Dipl.Pract.
I.ü 591); not in AND; TL 7.8 pactis Vertrag, Gdf 5.683b; FEW
7.462 a 'Apr. pati (seit 1379)', 'mfr. patis (1371-1440)', but French
attestations before 1432 all south of Loire (n.5 to FEW 7.462 a, on
463 a); cf. RMLWL pacticium (1401), paticia, paticium (1396),
patissium (1440).
[peiager], paiager s. tax-collector. plusours paiagers, collectors de
custumes, de travers, de maletustes, et commissaires de part nous
deputetz (Black Prince, Bordeaux, 22 July 1356; AHG, 16, 23); not
in AND; TL 7.521 peageor 'Erheber des Weggeldes, Zöllner; cf. Gdf
6.52b, FEW 8.301 a.
pescherie, peschier s.fishery: molins, bois, pres, pasteux, paduentz,
peschiers (ADG G.1716/11; vidimus of letter from Black Prince,
Angouleme, 13 January 1369); form not recorded AND; cf. AND sub
pescher2, pescherie; TL 7.827 peschiere s. f. 'Fischteich, Weiher;
Fischereigerecht'; cf. Gdf 6.123 b.
pigneure, pignoura (G.) s. (illegal) seizure: la pigneure de certaines
bestes prinses par les serviteurs dudit conte... pour eviter toutz
debatz, escandols, que en pourront ensuir le temps advenir, a cause
de ladicte pignoura... (John of Dudley, Saint-Seurin 21 February
1447/8; AHG, 16, 360); not in AND; Gdf 6.157a gage, caution, action
de saisir comme gage' (not all examples Occitan); FEW 8.447 a 'Apr.
penhora 'saisie', abearn. pignerd\ cf. RMLWL pignoragium (1284),
pignorantia (1341) 'pledge'.
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[protocolle], prothocolle s. (law) record, protocol: leur est besoinh
et necessite de avoir, extraire et grosser hors des registres et
prothocolles de feu G. de B., notaire... (John Talbot, concerning
property dispute, Bordeaux, 11 January 1452; AHG, 16, 371); not in
AND; cf. Gdf 10.438 c; TL 7.2002; FEW 9.480 a; RMLWL protocollum (1166-1684).
prudomie, prodomie s. worth, worthiness: pour la prodomie, bonne
renompnee, science eminente et bonnes meurs, desquieles somes
a plein informes estre en la personne de nostre tres eher et bien
ame R. de B.... (Thomas, Duke of Clarence, nominating Rampnol
de Blaye to the court and council of Gascony, Bordeaux, 27 March
1413; AHG, 16, 101); not in AND; in TL 7.1946; cf. Gdf 10.441 b.
quelquesoit a. (?) whatever: Ainceois l'en lerrons aler toute foiz que
lui plaira, non obstant quelquesoit chose luy ait este ou puisse avenir (safe-conduct from Black Prince, Bordeaux, 18 July 1365, with
a copy dated 28 July 1365; ADPA E.409); this looks like an error for
(perhaps) quelque chose (or quelconque chose) luy ait este - but
the same expression occurs in another safe-conduct in the same
Hasse, also for Gaston Febus, Libourne, 23 September 1366, äs Ten
lerons aler touttefoiz qu'il luy plaira, non obstant quelquesoit
chouse ne ait este ou puysse avenir, and in another safe-conduct
(also for Gaston Febus), Bordeaux, 28 July 1375 (AHG, 6, 370); not
recorded AND.
questable (G.) a. subject to the quete, or tax on property: terres,
seigneuries, cens, rentes, homes questables, tailles, questes (vidimus of letter from Black Prince, Angouleme, 13 January 1369; ADG,
G. 1716/11); not recorded AND, TL; attested Gdf 6.505c, FEW
2.Ü.1409 (Nivernais, Gascon, 'abearn.'); RMLWL questabilis (1400),
questalis (1276).
regiment s. administration, governance: pour la police, regiment et
gouvernance du pais (John de Radclyf, seneschal of Gascony,
authorizing levy of taxes, Bordeaux, 28 November 1430; AHG, 16,
194); Gdf 6.739b, 10.523a; TL 8.618 CBehandlung, Pflege' of animals, patients); FEW 10.210 a; RMLWL regimen (s. vüi).
reresouquet s. tax onfood an wine: octroions par ces presentes ...
le soquet du ble et du vin... pour chescun tonnel de vin qui sera
vendu a taverne en ladicte ville, cinq solx pour souquet, et autres
cinq solx pour reresouquet (vidimus of order by Black Prince allowing consuls of Agen to increase taxation on wine, Perigueux, 14
July 1364; AHG, 34, 191); not in AND; cf. Gdf 7.476 c soquet unpöt
sur le vin et quelques autres denrees' (1389-1601), not all examples
are Occitan.
soquet, souquet s. tax onfood and wine: octroions par ces presentes ... le soquet du ble et du vin ... pour chescun tonnel de vin qui
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sera vendu a taverne en ladicte ville, cinq solx pour souquet, et
autres cinq solx pour reresouquet (vidimus of order by Black
Prince allowing consuls of Agen to increase taxation on wine, Perigueux, 14 July 1364; AHG, 34, 191); not in AND, TL; cf. Gdf 7.476 c
'impöt sur le vin et quelques autres denrees' (1389-1601), not all
examples are Occitan.
sporle s. (law) sporle, feudal relief: parmi ce qu'il en fera uns gans
blancs de sporle (33 a (sign of?) tribute'?) au roy (John de Neville,
Bordeaux, 20 April 1379; PRO C 47/25/6 no. 1); not in AND, TL; cf.
Gdf esporle (3.546 c), where all quotations are from Gascony;
RMLWL sporla (1255).
stipulacion s. stipulation: par stipulacion solempne et ferme (AN,
J.655(16); Nichole [Lincoln], 4 July 1332); sunt tenuz e ount maunde
e promis pur (l. par?) ferma e leal stipulaciun rendre e paer al devaunt dys E. C.... (letter from Edward I, Bordeaux, 27 June 1289;
GR II 338a); not in AND; cf. Gdf 10.714 c, TL 9.1043, FEW 12.277 a
(1231).
sustenter, -anter v. a.; s. sä vie, to support oneself (financiallyy. Et
n'ayt ascuns biens de quoy puisse payer lez meres (= mires, 'doctors') pour li guarir de cez naffres ne de quoy puisse sustanter sä
vie (William Lescrope, Bordeaux, 19 November 1384; PRO E 10l/
183/3 no. 7); locution not in AND sub sustenter (but cf. sustenir),
Gdf 7.560 a, TL 9.974 or FEW 12.476 a.
tabellionat s. notary's Office: la (sc. document to be copied) escrives
et grosses, ou faictes scrivre et grosser, et mettre en fourme deue,
soubz vostre signet acostume de tabellionat, de l'auctorite dont
vous uses en Guienne (John Talbot, concerning property dispute,
Bordeaux, 11 January 1452; AHG, 16, 372); not in AND, TL; FEW
lS.i.12 a (1584); RMLWL tabeUionatus (1284).
trenquador (G.) s. arbitrator, judge: ou cas que lesditz quatre hommes ne se peussent acorder de tout ou de partie de les choses
dessusdictes qui sont en debat, seront ordonnes trenquadors; lesquelz trenquadors ordonneront de tout se que lesditz quatre hommes ne se pouront acorder (John of Dudley, Saint-Seurin, 21
February 1447/8; AHG, 16, 362); not in AND, TL; FEW 13.ii.281b (apr.
'arbitre'); cf. RMLWL trencheator (1439), tranchiator (1497) carver.
universelment adv. universally, concerning them all: la cominication et repaire des vassalx et subgittz quelx qu'ilz soient... en noz
paiez, villez et seignouriez, ainsi universelment que mention est fait
ou tierce article ... (Henry VI to council in Bordeaux, Westminster,
15 August 1437; AHG, 16, 238); not in AND; cf. Gdf 8.117c, 10.823b;
TL 11.57; FEW 14.49b.
vilipendre v. a. to vilify, calumniate: vilipendre et condempner nous
et noz officiers (Henry VI to inhabitants of Bordeaux, Windsor, 22
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August 1445; AHG, 16, 290); FEW 14.448 b vilipender 'traiter (qn)
de vil, avec beaucoup de mepris (seit 1530)'; 'dire du mal de qn BL
1808' RMLWL vüipendo 'to disparage' (ante 1090).
3. Documents sent by Gascons (within Gascony or to Britain)
accomplissement, acomplissement s. accomplishment, completion: pur l'acomplissement de pees fayte entre vous e vos auncestres de une part e ly e ces auncestres d'autre (credence of William
Inge, envoy to France, from the commissioners at Perigueux, 1311;
Gasc.Reg.A 363); not in AND but attested in English Anglo-French:
pur l'acomplisement d'ycest ma darrein voluntie RegChichJ ii 147;
cf. also AND accompliement.
bastide, bastida (G.) s. bastide, fortified town: come mons. G. P....
ayt founde una bastida qui a nom la bastida Seint Edward, en Basades ... (agreement negotiated by Arnaud Cailhau, seneschal of Saintonge, envoy sent by seneschal and council of Gascony to Edward
II, 1317; GR IV 580 a); form bastida not in AND (bastide from
Chaplais (1954)); FEW 1.278 a; DMLBS bastida (Gase., 1274).
[devinal], divinal s. divine, holy: que j chappellein ayt a celebrer
messes et fere le divinal office en la chappelle du chasteu de Bourdeaux (Council of Aquitaine to John de Stratton, [Bordeaux?], 8
October 1361; PRO E 101/183/2 no. 74); not in AND; TL 2.1870 devinal 'geistlich'.
exister v. n. to sit, be in office: les gens du conseill d'Aquitaine existens a Bourdeux pur nostre tressoverein seignur el Roy... (Council
of Aquitaine to John de Landiraus, Bordeaux, 20 July 1387; PRO E
101/183/2 no. 45); not in AND but cf. ester1; BW5 1425 rare avant
le 17e s/; FEW 3.298b existere 'daraus entlehnt nfr. exister (seit
17. Jh.').
fortiffiquer v. a. to fortify: ils (sc. consuls of the town) ont
tresgrande necessite de reparer et fortiffiquer leur lieu, et de plusors autres choses par contrester äs enamis (Bordeaux, l November 1384; PRO E 101/183/3 no. 10); not in AND, Gdf, TL but cf. AND
fortifier; not in FEW 3.732 a except Occitan; DMLBS fortificare
(1277).
innovacion s. Innovation, change: comme pluseurs innovacions et
damages, forfaiz et exces soiant este faiz par avant que monsieur
Johan Chandos prist la possession du pais (memoire of agreements
between Black Prince and lords of Aquitaine, s.l.n.d.; ADPA E.31);
not recorded AND; Gdf 10.18a, TL 4.1398; FEW 4.700b (from 1297).
[issac], yssac (G.) s. custom levied on wine: deux centz livres...
assignees en et sur les proffis de la coustume appellee yssac des
vins vendus a taverne en la ville de Bordeux (Council of Aquitaine,
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Bordeaux, 19 October 1387; PRO E 101/183/2 no. 37); not in Gdf,
TL, FEW; cf. RMLWL sub issaccum (1255).
mover v. n.; m. de, to depend on, be dependent on: tout meut de
vostre rerefie (agreement negotiated by Arnaud Cailhau, seneschal
of Saintonge, envoy sent by seneschal and council of Gascony to
Edward II, 1317; GR IV 579 a); exact sense not recorded AND; cf.
TL 6.385 (Im Lehnswesen: herkommen, stammen von').
(novement) s. introduction, Inauguration: Item est acordez qe
chescun novement (l. novelement?) ou renovement de seignurie
ubi notatur ratefier, agreer et, approver (petitions from king of
France, copied in requests by Thomas Cobham, 1311; Gasc.Reg.A
372); not in AND; cf. novelement1, [renuvement]; not in FEW, TL,
Gdf.
parcele, parcelle s. pari (andparcel): come l'office de la seneschaucie de Landes... fut nadguers parcelle de Foffice du seneschal de
Gascoigne ... (Gascony, 1333; PRO C 47/24/5 f. 7, Chaplais (1957, 71
n.l); exact usage not in AND, TL parcele 7.203.
patiz s. tribute, levy: fere tenir et guarder le pati pris et acorde par
le dit conseilh (Bordeaux, 12 May 1382; PRO E 101/183/2 no. 8); not
in AND; TL 7.8 pactis Vertrag, Gdf 5.683b; FEW 7.462a 'Apr. pati
(seit 1379)', mir. patis (1371-1440)', but French attestations before
1432 all south of Loire (n. 5 to FEW 7.462 a, on 463 a); cf. RMLWL
pacticium (1401), paticia, paticium (1396), patissimn (1440).
pel2, pal s. palissade, stockade: cloire de mur et de pal ses villes et
autres lieux (Black Prince to seneschal of Perigord, Bordeaux, 9
July 1365; ADPA E. 627); sense not recorded AND; cf. TL 7.577
Talissade'.
poeros a. powerful: A tresnoble et poeros seinhor... Hues le Despensse[r]... (Bordeaux, n.d.; PRO SC 1/50/4 endorsement); not in
AND, TL; FEW 9.234 b eApr. poderos, bdauph. pweyrus.
procurur s.; p. fiscal, (law) procurorfiscal: Item soit faite comission
pur mestre Guillem Passepaare de l'office de procuraire fiscal en
Bourdelois et Basadeis (s.l.n.d.; PRO C 47/25/6 no. 2); p. fiscal not
in AND, Gdf 6.422 c or TL 7.1942; cf. FEW 9.415 a apr. procuraire
fiscal (BAlpes 1442)'; 'mfr. nfr. procureur fiscal (1464-Ac 1798)';
RMLWL procurator fiscalis (Sc.: 1434).
ratifiement s. ratification: sunt tenu de ratefier, greer, de promettre
e de jurer... les greement, ratifiement, promesses, saerment, e
toutes les autres choses desusdites (letters of Renaldo, bishop of
Vicenza, incorporating agreement between envoys of kings of
France and England, 1299; Gasc.Reg.A 657); not in AND; cf. FEW
10.104; TL 8.333; Gdf 6.619 a.
Stile, stil s. style, form: si vous veez que la dite fourme ne soit plus
prejudiciele a nous que le stil de noz chartres des douns... (Gas-
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cony, 14 Jan. 1313; PRO Chancery Warrants 83/2579, Chaplais (1957,
75 n. 3)); cf. AND stile, estile (not with exactly this sense); TL
9.1042 'Ausdrucksweise; cf. Gdf 10.716c, FEW 12.266b.
tuteresse s. f. female guardian: ampres sä (sc. a knight's) mort, la
fame du dit chevaler, come tuteresse des enfans du dit chevaler...
(agreement negotiated by Arnaud Cailhau, seneschal of Saintonge,
envoy sent by seneschal and council of Gascony to Edward II, 1317;
GR IV 579b); not in AND; cf. Gdf S.llOc, TL 10.730, FEW 13.ii.450b
Cmfr. 1301-1527); RMLWL tutatrix (c. 1258).
A number of the items (innovacion, ratifiement, stipulacion, subrogier, tuteresse) are simply Latinisms of a type which studies of
non-literary material often throw up. Some (a disproportionate
number) are dubious and could easily be emended into more recognizable forms (commissarer, novement, plichon, quelquesoif). Others
are probably specific to Gascony (naasse and/^er in the sense found
here; issac; paduent; patiz; questable). Some are patently Gascon
borrowings (captal; bastida; heretate [or is it a Latinism?];
trenquador) and present a problem comparable to that of the numerous Middle English words which occur in Anglo-French. An interesting feature revealed by the grouping adopted here is that the visible
Gasconisms are by no means restricted to the group of documents
sent by Gascons, and whose Anglo-French Status is harder to defend.
A number of such borrowings (naasse, paduent, heritate) are found
in the most straightforwardly Anglo-French category, or amongst documents apparently composed by Englishmen in Gascony. This is inevitable in correspondence of this sort, dealing with technical and legal
matters specific to Gascony: those who wrote from London would
have been trained Professionals, who would naturally have used the
precise terminology appropriate to local requirements, and the men
on the ground, likewise, would automatically have used correct local
terms.
It might be argued that the words in category (3) above, drawn
from documents composed by or at the behest of Gascons, in Gascony, have no place in the lexis of Anglo-French. Yet some at least
of the terms listed (accomplissement, bastida, mover, parcelle, pal,
paryage, patiz, stil) are also found in one of the other two, more
obviously Anglo-French categories, or (with different senses) in other
sources of impeccable Anglo-French pedigree. Moreover, most of
those words not so buttressed by other evidence (divinal, exister,
fortiffiquer, innovacion, novement, procurur fiscal, ratifiement, tuteresse^ are not, in fact, conspicuously Gascon at all. Only yssac and
poeros can legitimately be classed äs Gasconisms from this list. In the
light of this, to reject particular items on the basis of the fact that
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they happen so far to have been found above the signature of a Gascon (rather than an Anglo-Frenchman) seems mistaken.
What these gleaiüngs reveal is that Anglo-French in Gascony presents not so much a lexikalische Sonderstellung with respect to
French, Anglo-French and Gascon, äs (less tidily) a lexikalische Zusammenstellung, indeed frankly something of a lexikalischer
Mischmasch. The comparison with British Latin, or for that matter
with some of the more down-to-earth manifestations of British AngloFrench, is obvious. No-one who has read Tony Hunt's remarkable
Teaching and Learning Latin in Thirteenth-Century England (Hunt
1991) or the series of articles produced in recent years by William
Rothwell (Rothwell 1993 a, 1993 b, 1994) can reasonably persist in the
belief that the languages of medieval England were distinct entities,
hermetically sealed one from the other. As with England, so with Gascony. French, Anglo-French, Gascon and Latin coexisted for three
hundred years in a state of happy and fertile concubinage. The lexical
offspring of this irregulär and many-sided union furnish ample evidence of the productivity of such contact between languages, and
clearly demonstrate the linguistic vitality of this corner of France that
was for three hundred years, though not forever (and never quite),
part of Anglo-Norman England.
Bibliography
ADG = Archives Departementales de la Gironde (Bordeaux).
ADPA = Archives Departementales des Pyrenees-Atlantiques (Pau).
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DAVID TROTTER
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